Learning and Replicability – Through Area Based & Pan City Proposals

“The strategic components of Smart Cities Mission are city improvement (retrofitting), city renewal (redevelopment) and city extension (greenfield development) plus a pan-city initiative in which Smart Solutions are applied covering larger parts of the city. The focus is on sustainable and inclusive development and the idea is to look at compact areas, create a replicable model which will act like a light house to other aspiring cities. It is meant to set examples that can be replicated both within and outside the Smart City.”
– Smart City Guidelines

The Smart City Proposal (SCP) is a document built upon a bold vision that reflects a city’s local context, resources and aspirations of its citizens. It includes a pan city proposal (PCP) and an area based proposal (ABP), along with the strategy for its implementation and finance. The ABP and PCP are based on the city’s SWOT analysis, citizens’ aspirations and other parameters of the city. The ABP proposes solutions for a specific area of the city, creating an example for others within the city and beyond to follow and adopt. The PCP majorly includes ICT enabled solutions which would touch the lives of many or potentially all citizens.

Area Based Proposal

In case of the Area Based Proposal, the cities identify a developed area for urban transformation or a new un-developed area to build on in order to accommodate its expanding population. While the developed areas are retrofitted or redeveloped to improve service delivery and quality of life, the new areas are built up from scratch with the purpose of creating a sustainable greenfield development. Even though a particular model has not been prescribed, it is expected that the cities in their SCPs will include all or most of the smart city features listed. In the SCP’s of the twenty lighthouse cities, retrofitting and redevelopment are the major ABP strategies. Fifteen out of the twenty cities have identified retrofitting as the model for their ABP. Four cities have combined retrofitting and redevelopment in their ABP. One city is engaging in complete redevelopment of area in ABP. ABPs across the twenty cities vary in size, model and investment, but many themes are repeated across these cities.

Open Space Management

Open space management is the most repeated theme in the ABPs of the twenty lighthouse cities. Realising threats of
growing pollution and degrading quality of life, eighteen cities have proposed creating quality open spaces by rejuvenating existing parks, building new parks, connecting open spaces, developing green and eco-corridors etc. Ahmedabad, Belagavi, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Coimbatore, Devanagere, Guwahati, Indore, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Kakinada, Kochi, Pune, Solapur, Surat, Udaipur and Visakhapatnam are engaging in open space management at different scales of different kinds.

Lake and River Precinct Development

Lake and river precinct development is another popular theme within the lighthouse cities. Fourteen cities – including Belagavi, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Coimbatore, Guwahati, Indore, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Kakinada, Kochi, Pune, Solapur, Surat and Udaipur – have identified urban water bodies as strategic areas of interest in their proposals. Revitalisation of water bodies and water front development are the most common among these proposals. Guwahati’s complete ABP focuses on the rivers in the city so as to manage flood risk and to develop the areas adjacent to the rivers as major economic drivers.
Additionally, Chennai, Vishakapattanam and Kakinada are looking at various interventions along the coastline for early warning systems and flood management.

Affordable Housing

Affordable housing is another recurrent theme among the ABPs of the lighthouse cities. Thirteen out of the twenty cities proposed construction of affordable housing units either as slum redevelopment or as housing for economically weaker section (EWS). Ahmedabad, Belagavi, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Coimbatore, Devanagere, Indore, Jabalpur, Kakinada, Kochi, Pune, Surat and Visakhapatnam are the cities who have proposed affordable housing. To make provide housing at affordable prices for the increasing number of the homeless people, the city Bhopal and Bhubaneswar propose construction of rental public housing and rental housing for construction workers with construction of market rate units.

Heritage Area Development

Yet another area of interest in the ABPs is heritage area development. Eight cities – including Belagavi, Devanagere, Indore, Jaipur, Kochi, NDMC, Solapur and Udaipur – with rich heritage propose to revitalize their historical heritage areas through various interventions such as development of heritage park, heritage block development, conservation of built heritage, heritage and tourism master plan, adaptive re-use of buildings, rejuvenation of historical area and architectural restoration of urban fabric.

Central Business District and Market Area Rejuvenation

As much as the plans are about improving quality of life, they also focus on improving the economy of the city. Six cities have proposed to engage in economic development for the city through revamp of existing industries, retrofit of old industrial units, upgradation of markets, open markets and retrofit of CBD. Belagavi, Bhubaneswar, Devanagere, Kakinada, Kochi and NDMC are the cities working on this. They look at markets and CBDs as areas of strategic intervention.

Other Major Proposals

Almost all the cities have proposed smart interventions for transportation, water and energy. In addition, some cities
have unique proposals such as museums, mega projects like convention centre, sports complex and stadiums,
incubation and business development centres and many more. Sustainability practices and green city initiatives such as smart LED street lighting, rain water harvesting, renewable energy initiatives, smart water and waste water management, integrated solid waste management and sanitation, pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure and non motorised streets are other major arenas of intervention in the ABPs of the lighthouse cities.

Pan City Proposal

Pan-city development envisages application of selected Smart Solutions to the existing city-wide infrastructure. Application of Smart Solutions involves the use of technology, information and data to make infrastructure and services better. The lighthouse cities have proposed various pan city projects for different strategic areas in their smart city plans.

ITS and Urban Mobility

Cities are looking towards better quality of life by improving their urban mobility scenario through intelligent traffic and transportation systems (ITS) and improving reliability of public transportation. Twelve cities – including Ahmedabad, Belagavi, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Devanagere, Guwahati, Indore, Jaipur, Ludhiana, Pune, Surat and Udaipur – have proposed various city wide projects following this theme. They include smart signalling, fleet management, GPS tracking, smart bus shelters, smart buses, traffic mobile apps, public transit and traffic operation systems, etc.

e-Gov Services

For improving government to citizen (G2C) services, ten cities- Belagavi, Bhopal, Devanagere, Kakinada, Kochi, NDMC, Solapur, Surat, Udaipur and Vishakapattanam – have proposed projects such as city dashboards, ICT and social media based two way communication platforms, city websites, app and call centres and GIS based mapping of utilities towards information dissemination and engagement with citizens.

Smart Water and Sewerage Management

Sustainable practices such as smart metering, water audits, water reuse and online water quality monitoring are proposed for improving water networks. Environment friendly treatment and disposal methods of sewerage and reuse of treated water is proposed in ten cities- Belagavi, Chennai, Devanagere, Guwahati, Kochi, NDMC, Pune, Solapur, Udaipur and Vishakapattanam.

Command and Control Centre

Cities have recogonised the need for integrated management of city services and this is reflected with six cities proposing control and command centre as one of their PCPs. These cities are Ahmedabad, Belagavi, Bhubaneswar, Indore, Jabalpur and Ludhiana. The proposed centres will act as the control rooms for operation and management of various urban systems such as traffic signals, water supply, power networks, communication channels etc. Additionally these centres in some cities function towards grievance redressal by registering complaints from
citizens.

Smart Energy Management

Six cities – Belagavi, Bhopal, Coimbatore, Devanagere, NDMC and Udaipur – propose sustainable practices in energy for the whole city mostly through the use of renewable energy, intelligent LED street lighting and conversion of CFL to LED lights in household.

Smart Solid Waste management

Integrated solid waste management involving 100% waste segregation, GPS tracking and RFID tags on trucks, geo-fencing of waste bins, environment friendly treatment methods and waste to energy plants are proposed in five cities – Bhopal, Indore, Jabalpur, Jaipur and Kakinada.

Other Major Proposals

PCP’s also includes city wide surveillance using CCTV cameras to monitor safety, disaster management using early warning systems, incident response system, smart education and health, m-government services and several other projects which use ICT as a tool to improve the quality of life.