CIDCO Smart City Lab publishes Volume 5 – Issue 3 of its newsletter CIDCO@Smart, detailing the team’s activities between July and Sept 2019. This issue talks about Desalination plants and a possible framework for an Environment Impact Assessment of Desalination plants. The issue also talks about the importance of segregating the waste at source and the importance of technology in organisational learning.
CIDCO Smart City Lab publishes Volume 5 – Issue 1 & 2 of its newsletter CIDCO@Smart, detailing the team’s activities between Jan and June 2019. This issue talks about Urban Eco-system and explains its various elements through different case studies from around the world.
The different articles talk about Urban Heat Island effect, Urban Food Systems, Indicators for a Slum Redevelopment Program, Urban Sanitation and Wastewater in India, Impact of Urban Morphology on Social Life, Cases of Self-organisation in Amsterdam, London’s Low Emission Zones, etc.
CIDCO Smart City Lab publishes combined issue Volume 4 – Issue 3 & 4 of its newsletter CIDCO@Smart, detailing the team’s activities between July and December 2018. This issue takes different case studies from all around the world discussing the importance of public spaces. It identifies the coherence of SDGs with public open spaces and the subsequent articles focuses on various best practice models in different cities around the world.
This issue talks about different cases such as revitalising the streets, designing gender sensitive public spaces and public spaces as promoters of equity and social inclusion. It also looks into the case of Pike Place Market in Seattle to understand the economy of public markets, innovative ideas such as transforming a landfill site into a public park and emerging ideas like development of urban agriculture under transmission lines.
CIDCO Smart City Lab publishes Volume 4 – Issue 2 of its newsletter CIDCO@Smart, detailing the team’s activities between April and June 2018. Concentrating on the bus transport networks, this special issue takes different case studies from all around the world. It identifies the issues and challenges faced by the bus systems and the subsequent articles focuses on various best practice models in different cities around the world.
This issue presents emerging ideas such as social equity in accessing public transportation, marketing the bus and new generation of multi-modal nodes. It also looks into innovative ideas such Select Bus Service of New York and Role of ITS in modernisation of operations management. Under the section best practices, it presents low-carbon emission bus fleets through the case-study of Shenzhen, China and talks about the preventive maintenance practices by the WMATA and APSRTC.
NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab publishes Volume 4, Issue 1 of its newsletter ‘CIDCO@Smart’ detailing the team’s activities between January 2018 to March 2018. It gives an insight into the work done by the CIDCO Smart City Lab team in the areas of Research, Capacity Building, Innovation and Project support for CIDCO.
This issue highlights the performance of the training cell’s portal UJJWAL since its launch. The newsletter features the case-study of dockless bicycle sharing in Palava, interviews of the employees about their training experiences, discusses about the Kirkpatrick model and the importance of online platforms in citizen engagement activities. It also presents the key highlights of Melbourne’s Smart City plan.
It is available for viewing and downloading here.
NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab publishes CIDCO@Smart Volume 3 Issues 3 and 4, detailing the team’s activities from July 2017 and December 2017. The newsletter gives an insight into the work done by the Smart City Lab team in the areas of Research, Capacity Building, Innovation and Project support for CIDCO.
This issue covers Financial Independence as the Objective Area and Nature Park and Smart Parking as Projects in Focus from the CIDCO Smart City Action Plan. The Data sheets in this issue include a summary of the Smart City Plans from Guwahati and Ludhiana along with the project summaries for 90 Smart Cities (Light House, Fast Track, Round II and Round III). Knowledge Lab, presents the feedback received for the trainings facilitated through Ujjwal and introduces the new Sharing Module on Ujjwal. Smart City Corner covers Bloom’s Taxonomy – a tool used for strategizing capacity building, structured capacity building for organisational learning and Smart City Framework for Vienna. The issue also presents a brief summary of a draft alternative TOD policy for Delhi prepared by the Smart City Lab under Initiatives@Smart City Lab. Finally, Participatory Budgeting is discussed under the Inclusive Planning section with examples from Pune and Kerala.
It is available for download here.
NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab publishes Volume 3, Issue 2 of its newsletter detailing the team’s activities between April 2017 and June 2017. The newsletter titled ‘CIDCO@Smart’ gives an insight into the work done by the CIDCO Smart City Lab team in the areas of Research, Capacity Building, Innovation and Project support for CIDCO.
This issue showcases CIDCO’s work on the objectives set by the Swachh Bharat Mission, led by the implementation of new technologies for waste management practices and the proposed Development of Terminus Station at Panvel. The newsletter shares highlights from Davanagere’s Smart City Plan and features an update on the third round of the National Smart Cities Mission. Knowledge Lab focuses on the establishment of NIUA-CIDCO Training Cell and the launch of CIDCO’s first training portal Ujjwal. It includes a detailed walkthrough for the portal, along with a brief discussion on its role in implementation of CIDCO’s Training Policy. Smart City Corner presents the key highlights of the Smart City Plan from Colmbus, Ohio. It is a follow up on the previous article, which offered a comparative analysis of the Indian National Smart Cities Mission and the American Smart Cities Challenge. The Inclusive Planning section covers Kudumbasree’s work for inclusion of women and transgender individuals in the development and operation of Kochi Metro. This issue also features its first article on HR Management in the Newsletter, discussing an instructional design model called ADDIE.
The issue is available for download here.
Summary of ‘Does the Domestic Space belong to Women’ published in TRIA International Journal of Urban Planning (Vol. 9, no. 1), Written by Rewa Marathe and Suzana Jacob
Households in the cultural context of a patriarchal society such as India, are primarily headed by men. The reason why a female heads a household is not a result of improving the social and economic status of women—it is unlikely that a woman will be considered the head of the household in the presence of her husband. It is mostly because there is no alternative (Masoodi, 2015). And while they are not considered the natural heads of the household, the house remains at the heart of women’s lives. It is where they spend most of their time, look after their family and children and even run businesses. In such a conflicting scenario of ownership and belonging to the house, it is essential to question our housing policies, building, and property ownership regulations for their adequacy of providing safety and security to the women.
Need for Gender Sensitive Planning
According to the 2011 Census, about 27 million households in India (11% of total households in the country), are headed by women. Still, the socio-cultural system places women as an outsider in their own family – the one who will marry and leave her parents’ house for her husband – and as the outsider in their husband’s house who came into the family through marriage. House is a workplace for the caregiver. In the current Indian context, this is primarily women. Safe and affordable housing for women is a key to combating urban poverty (Khosla). Women’s participation in housing usually begins where the housing project ends – in the maintenance of housing stock
(Fernando, 1985). Women and men differ in their roles, needs, and perceptions regarding housing and conscious efforts to address both their views lead to better project design and performance. Gender sensitive planning is therefore of great value.
Gender & Housing in India
The paper looks at policy, legislation, finance and design & construction processes within the housing sector in India to put together a broad understanding of the gaps in identifying and addressing issues critical to the subject. It recognises the following challenges:
- Need of attention to the language used in describing gender
- Little recognition of household management as ‘work’
- Lack of attention to the needs of home-based businesses
- Existing gaps & social stigma about female-headed households
- Need for higher property ownership among women
- Need for attention towards victims of domestic abuse and the limitations resulting from congruent lack of property ownership
- Gaps in access to finance & homeownership – legal and social
- Little attention to non-conventional familial structures/ units
- Necessity of greater focus on women within the structure of housing schemes for poor
- Dependence on women for bridging service delivery gaps
- Need for larger participation of women in the design and planning process (which are both male-dominated professions)
The paper also highlights critical progress that has been made in the recent years
- Government of India has developed a Draft National Policy for Women which articulates a vision for women empowerment. The policy looks at enabling environments such as housing and shelter, drinking water and sanitation, social security and infrastructure among others.
- The recent Pradhan Manthri Avas Yojana (PMAY) supports the construction of affordable houses for the homeless with basic civic infrastructure and mandates its registration in the name of a woman in the family. Further, allocation of houses to beneficiaries is through a transparent process using an online portal.
- Under the new urban agenda, issues of displacement during slum rehabilitation programmes are addressed by making in-situ redevelopment a condition for national programme funds (in PMAY).
These policies and programmes will help create an environment that will empower and enable women to access housing. But its success will depend on the large-scale engagement of women, deliberate and sincere efforts from public agencies, and collaboration and shared vision of various stakeholders including public, private and civil society organisations, that is supported by a strategic theme of gender mainstreaming. Gender mainstreaming can begin with the simplest of interventions, as is seen in the case of the City of Montreal, where METRAC developed the system of gender-based safety audits and the City of Vienna, which adopted gender mainstreaming as a cross-cutting strategy for the whole municipality by establishing an Office of Gender Mainstreaming. While individual women have and will continue to make incredible strides, women as a class will not fully achieve social, economic, and political equality until responsibility for the care of society’s dependents becomes consistent with participation in public life (Silbaugh, 2007). Adopting Gender Mainstreaming in India’s housing policies will provide equal opportunities for everyone. It will enable equitable distribution of resources, developing a system which is more sensitive to the needs of the society and leads to greater transparency due to a wider engagement with the members of the society at different stages of the planning processes.
Rapid economic development in globalised India has led to an immense pressure on the urban infrastructure of the country. With an ever growing population, the country needs to manage its growth through a strategic approach and sustainable practices that encourage efficiency in land use and transportation. Given the large scale of investments underway across hundreds of Indian cities under a variety of national urban development schemes and missions, there is an opportunity to enhance and redirect the planning practices at the city level in India, leading to an integration between land use and transportation.
The Smart Cities Mission attempts to do so by encouraging the cities to adopt a strategic approach to planning and by advocating for implementation of Transit Oriented Developments. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) can be used effectively to create high density, compact neighbourhoods supported by public transit, to reduce the dependence on private vehicles and the resulting pollution and congestion. So far, 60 cities have already been selected under the Smart Cities Mission and their Smart City Plans are currently being implemented. Out of these 60 cities, 41 illustrate transit oriented development or land-use-transportation integration. To support this nation-wide effort in the implementation of TODs, the Ministry of Urban Development recently published a Guidance Document for planning and implementing a TOD in an Indian city. Its purpose is to assist various government organisations, public authorities and development professionals in India, in the process of integrating sustainable transport planning principles in diverse urban contexts. The document outlines 12 guiding principles and 9 supportive principles essential for the successful implementation of a TOD. It is meant to be used to evaluate the implementation of projects under the Smart City Mission. However, there are several limitations to this:
- One year long gap between preparation of the Smart City Mission Guidelines and publication of the Guidance Document.
- The Guidance Document presents a technical approach to planning and implementing TOD according to the needs of each city; whereas the Guidelines for the SmartCities Mission recommends a broader city level strategic approach, where TOD is one of the possible solutions. This limits the use of MoUD’s Guidance Document in assessing the SCPs.
- The Guidance Document recommends identification of scale and site of a TOD based on the availability of resources and enabling environment. Site selection and selection of TOD as an approach in the Smart City Mission depends on the availability of suitable land and expert opinion and citizen engagement.
To overcome these limitations and to use MoUD’s Guidance Document in the assessment of the SCPs, it is important to first identify where the TOD planning and implementation process recommended under each of these two approaches aligns. In February 2017, NIUA released the publication titled “A Smart(er) TOD” in an attempt to do so.
The document was produced as a deliverable for the TOD in Indian Smart Cities project, conducted with the aid of the Prosperity Fund, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Government of UK. It is one of four documents published over the course of the research. The other three other publications from the study are:
- Transit Oriented Development in Indian Smart Cities – a Global Review of Best Practices: outlines the five constructs of a TOD – Density, Diversity, Design, Mobility and Affordable Housing
- Game Changers in TOD: Discusses Value Capture Finance and Form Based Codes
- Assessing TOD: Presents a list of indicators and values for assessing a TOD
A Smart(er) TOD proposes a method for assessing individual TOD projects incorporated in SCPs of various cities, using the recommendations of MoUD’s TOD Guidance Document.
- It begins with a description of the proposed method for this and the various documents required.
- Next, it maps the relationship between the five constructs of TOD presented in the Best Practices document and the Principles outlined by MoUD’s Guidance Document.
- Finally, it illustrates the application of the proposed method through analysis of SCPs from 21 cities. It also presents a list of TOD projects from these 21 cities, along with their project budget.
The publication was produced with the purpose of providing support to Indian cities, within or outside the Smart City Mission. It particularly aims to help:
- Cities which have proposed TOD/land-use-transportation integration in the Light House, Fast Track or Round 2: to support the preparation of their Detailed Project Report (DPR) for proposed projects in their Smart City Plans. For example, if a city has proposed a project for building Non Motorised Transport
(NMT) infrastructure within the TOD, this study will help identify the various interventions that should be a part of the project beyond the creation of segregated cycle tracks, such as designing intersections and reducing the spacing streets or ize of block to reduce trip lengths. Inclusion of such details in the DPR will increase chance of success and improve in the quality of life for the citizens.
- Cities which have not proposed TOD in the Light House, Fast Track or Round 2: it is observed that cities have without TOD still have a significant number of their projects are geared towards enhancement of transportation and housing. The results of this study will provide them with an overview of interventions that should be a part of such projects.
- Cities which are participating in the next round: to support the preparation of their Smart City Proposals and selection of projects if they identify TOD as a relevant strategy.
The publication is available to view on tod.niua.org, along with the other deliverables from the project.
London’s technology market worth GBP 19 billion is the largest in Europe and one of the largest in the world. It has over 40,000 digital businesses and 200,000 employees. The Smart London Plan was published in 2013 to leverage this market to improve the experience of London for everyone. Set within the overarching framework of the Mayor’s 2020 vision, the Smart London Plan looked forward to new approaches that digital technology can bring to support London’s future growth. The Plan was prepared by Smart London Board formed in 2013 under the Mayor of London. The Plan focused on actions that were to be undertaken between 2013 and the end of the Mayoral term in 2016.
The Smart London Plan leverages on London’s innovation lead to drive change with further investment in technology and data to offer Londoners better services; create efficient savings; and lead improvements in enterprise, skills and training, infrastructure and environment, health and well being and transport in London. The term ‘smart city’ means different things to different people. Smart London is about how London as a whole functions as a result of the interplay between its ‘systems’ – from local labour markets to financial markets, from local government to education, healthcare, transportation and utilities. The objective of the Plan was to create an ecosystem where the linkages between these different systems are better understood, where digital technology is used to better integrate these different systems, and London as a whole works more efficiently. The Smart London Venn diagram illustrates the starting approach of the Plan that put Londoners at the core – driven by the principles of openness, collaboration, innovation and engagement.
The Smart London Plan identified three opportunity areas for using innovations and advancements in digital technology.
- To engage citizens- by focussing on inclusive digital engagement and improving digital skills for all.
- To enable good growth- by building resilient digital infrastructure, making more data available and investing in innovation.
- To work with businesses- by breaking down boundaries, supporting common standards and smarter regulations, and scaling-up innovation.
Seven aims in of the Smart London Plan targeted these opportunity areas.
- The Plan placed Londoner’s at the core by seeking citizen opinion of what a “Smart London” should look like, and deliver. Using digital and offline tools, the plan strategised citizen engagement that is inclusive.
- The Plan promoted open data, such that relevant data on demand, consumption, services and operations is made available for public. The plan encouraged public and private organisations to open their data and aggregate data sets and sensors networks across London into developer friendly platform.
- The Plan encouraged the energy and talent in London to solve the city’s challenges by hosting Innovation challenges, showcasing investment opportunities for global finance, and providing the necessary ecosystem for start-ups in the city to grow.
- The Plan brought together the innovation ecosystem created by various organisations including university led activities, corporate led activity, not for profit, public bodies and others in the city for a strategic collaboration to create real efficiencies across London to scale up successful projects.
- The Plan supported the use of data to identify and plan ‘opportunity areas’- localities and sectors for development. It supported digital solutions across city utilities such as water metering, solid waste management, traffic management, etc.
- The Plan identified the need for the city authorities to work in an integrated manner by sharing data and analytics and identifying strategic opportunities for applying data and technology for efficiency.
- The Plan harnessed digital technology to enhance the experience of London for all by investing in wireless networks and digital solutions such as journey planning, digital money etc.
The aims of the Plan was further enhanced with a set of milestones/ indicators to measure success. Some of these milestones/ indicators were measured at the end of the Mayoral term in 2016 and others, which will take longer to affect, measured later. The Smart London Plan was followed up with an update report – The Future of Smart in 2016, which provided the status of implementation of the strategies/ activities within the seven aims of the Smart London Plan. This report shared the supporting data and statistics for the progress till 2016 in each of the activities within the seven aims of the 2013 Smart London Plan. The Smart London Plan positions itself in synergy with the Mayors vision 2020 and provides inputs to Mayors Infrastructure Plan 2050. Mayor’s technology programmes in London are guided by the Smart London Plan. The plan hence functions as a digital overlay to the ongoing and proposed interventions/projects in the city.