Lessons from Ujjwal

About the Feedback

CIDCO’s Online Training Management System Ujjwal has now been online for 5 months. It has facilitated participation of over hundred CIDCO officers in over fifty courses from different institutes across the country. Upon the participation of a CIDCO Officer in a course through Ujjwal, they submit a detailed Feedback based on their experience. This Feedback collects information on 15 parameters grouped into three different sections – Course Content, Course and Training Cell & Feedback. The sections are structured as follows:

  • The Feedback starts with the purpose for participation in the course. Officers have the choice of picking one or more out of the following:
    • Immediate need for everyday tasks
    • Professional growth
    • Personal growth
    • Any other reasons
  • About the course content: In five questions, this section covers the quality and applicability of content of the course among others. Responses for this section were on a four point scale with ‘Strongly Agree’, ‘Agree’, ‘Disagree’ and ‘Strongly Disagree’ as the responses.
  • About the course: In six questions, this section covers the course delivery mechanism, instructors and the training institute.
  • About the training cell & portal: This section has three questions and it goes over the quality of support received by the Officers throughout the process from the Training Cell and the portal itself.
  • All of the responses are collected on a four-point scale with ‘Outstanding’, ‘Good’, ‘Requires Improvement’ and ‘Poor’ as the responses.
  • Finally, the Officers have the option of submitting Additional comments or suggestions at the end to give an insight to their experience and as opportunity to air any grievances.

This article highlights some of the feedback submitted by CIDCO Officers through this Feedback system. Ujjwal currently has 829 registered users. Out of these, 483 employees have logged into Ujjwal at least once. Over 140 of these officers have registered and participated in training through Ujjwal in the last 5 months. Out of these 129 Officers have submitted their feedback.

129 CIDCO Officers have submitted their feedback for their experiences of training through Ujjwal. Response for selected questions is shared here:

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Using the Sharing Tool

Ujjwal is a customised Training Management System built by the NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab to facilitate CIDCO Officers’ participation in trainings as per the guidelines of CIDCO’s Training Policy. Since its launch in July 2017, Ujjwal has received a positive feedback from 95% of the participating CIDCO Officers.

As a next step in Ujjwal’s roll out, NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab has introduced a new feature – the Sharing Module. This module enables all CIDCO Officers who log into Ujjwal to share courses with their colleagues (who are also registered on Ujjwal). The process of using the Sharing Module is as described below:

Step 1: Visit one of these three pages on your Ujjwal Dashboard – ‘Add Training’, ‘Check stages’, or ‘My Completed
Training’. The second and the third are useful if you have already applied for three courses of your interest.

Step 2: Identify a course that you would like to share with your colleague or your department and click on ‘View
Course Details’ or on the name of the course.

Step 3: Notice there is a green ‘Share’ button on the right hand side top corner of this new page.

Step 4: Click on the button to open the ‘Share’ tool.

Step 5: Select one of the following to choose who you want to share the course with:

  • ‘By Individual’ to type in Individual names of the CIDCO Officers you want to share the course with – You can type
    in more than one name.
  • ‘By Department’ to type the name of your department – if you want to share the course with all the CIDCO officers
    in your department.

Step 6: Next, hit the ‘Share’ button at the bottom to send the course.

 

Step 7: Once a course has been shared, the recipients will receive an e-mail and SMS alert informing them that you
have shared a course with them. Now, you can see the course you shared on the ‘Shared Courses’ page.

When someone shares a course with you:

Step1: If someone shares a course with you, it is visible in the ‘Recommended Courses’ page.

Step 2: On the ‘Recommended Courses’ page, you will be able to review all the details of the course

Step 3: If you are yet to submit your selection of courses to participate in, you include such a ‘Recommended course’
by clicking on the ‘Add to Trainings’ button next to it.

Step 4: You can also add it to your ‘Wish-list’ if your enrolment and participation in a course is underway or
completed.

Step 5: ‘Wish-list’ can also be used if the date of a ‘Recommended course’ that you are interested in has passed

Step 6: ‘Wish-list’ allows you revisit the course once you have completed your participation in a training and the
subsequent lock period is over.

Step 7: If the date of a ‘Wish-listed course’ has passed, Ujjwal will send you a reminder when the course is available
for participation once again.

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Participatory Budgeting

Introduction

Participatory Budgeting is a democratic process in which community members directly decide how to spend part of a public budget. It helps make budget decisions clear and accessible. It gives real power to people who have never before been involved in the political process. (New York City Council, n.d.).

“How do you spend $1 million of the city’s money…?” The pamphlets used in New York’s pilot program on Participatory Budgeting (PBNYC) ask this question to the citizens.

The practice of Participatory Budgeting originated in Porto Alegre, Brazil in 1989. It attracts almost 50,000 citizens every year to deliberate on the utilisation of approximately 20% of city’s monetary resource (Shah, 2007). Its positive impact is a noticeable improvement in the accessibility and quality of various public welfare amenities in those municipalities that have adopted it. The participation and influence of people belonging to low-income groups in the budget allocation process are proof of their empowerment (Bhatnagar, Rathore, Torres, & Kanungo). Numerous governments, NGOs, institutional bodies, social movements and political parties have adopted participatory budgeting to bring changes in public policy and implementation processes.

Participatory Budgeting in India

Since the amendment of 74th Constitutional Act, the interaction of local civic bodies with the decision-making bodies of government ameliorated. Along with this, the sectors of economics, planning, justice and budgeting became transparent to the public and they eventually became crucial stakeholders. A few notable Participatory Budgeting initiatives in India are in Bangalore, Mysore, Pune and Kochi, where formal institutional methods were established which made sure that citizens were also part of decision-making (Shetty, 2015). Bangalore was the first city to implement participatory budgeting and the campaign resulted in citizen’s participation in budget allocation in over 20% of wards in the city (Keruwala, 2013).

Case of Pune

Participatory Budgeting was launched in Pune in 2006 under the then commissioner of Pune Municipal Corporation. Pune Municipal Corporation consists of four zones with 15 administrative wards. Each administrative ward contains 4 to 6 prabhags. Each prabhag (composed of two electoral wards) was allocated a budget of 50 lacs and could execute any number of projects with a maximum cost of Rs. 5 lac per project. For 76 prabhags in PMC, a total of Rs. 38 crore was allocated through participatory budgeting (Keruwala, 2013).

The process begins when Pune municipal Corporation (PMC) invites suggestions from citizens at the respective ward offices. These inputs vary from roads, electricity, buildings to slum improvement and water supply and drainage. Suggestions by the citizens are compiled at the ward office and submitted to prabhag samiti, which in turn sends the approved suggestions for accounts scrutiny to produce a final list of projects to be implemented in PMC region.

Decentralised Planning in Kerala – An Experiment through Ninth Five-Year Plan

In India’s ninth five-year plan, Government of Kerala established a decentralisation plan, which was an outcome of People’s Plan Campaign – an experimental approach to reformations in local planning. Participatory budgeting was first launched in 1996 and covered the entire state including 991 rural villages, 152 block panchayats, 53 municipalities, 14 districts and 5 corporations that represented different levels of administrative bodies (Wilhelmy, 2013).

Following this, in the period 1996 to 2001, the entire state devolved approximately 40% of state revenue into the projects chosen by 65% of the 3 million beneficiary citizens and eventually this model became a part of state planning, now popularly known as Kerala Development Plan (Wilhelmy, 2013). With an objective to ensure that priority projects meet the needs of beneficiary citizens, the model aims to establish civic engagements exercises. Participatory planning in Kerala focuses on local economic development, social justice and various public services with excellence (George & Balan, People’s Participation in Development Planning in Kerala, 2011).

Kerala’s process evolved into a dynamic model with two key features of the campaign – resourceful and trained administration and the extent of involvement of people elected delegates. The model created an inclusive platform of citizens supported by 373 state-level trainers, almost 10,500 trained provincial-level resource persons and 50,000 trained local activists (including 4,000 retired administrators) (Wilhelmy, 2013). The delegates elected by the people were involved in the budgeting process at every phase with a say in raising demands, prioritising projects and development plans (Wilhelmy, 2013).

Stages of Participatory Planning

The procedure of participatory budgeting comprises of six stages:

  • A range of local assemblies/grama sabhas are conducted.
  • Conducting development seminars, which facilitates discussions between politicians, experts and groups of citizens.
  • Preparation of report from the data collected from development seminars.
  • Drafting of project proposals with technical requirements and budget planning details by the ‘task force’ created by the development seminar.
  • Approval of the projects and budget by District Planning Committees.
  • Implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the approved projects.

Public Participation

All stages of participatory planning ensure involvement of the stakeholders. The local government, to execute the initiatives and to promote maximum participation of the public, forms certain Working Groups (Figure 22) that are mandatory in every local body (George & Balan, People’s Participation in Development Planning in Kerala, 2011). These groups include the sectors shown in the diagram. The Working Groups, with an elected head perform effectively to guarantee participation of all marginalised societal groups. At the second stage of participatory planning – Development Seminar, the proposal projects put forward by the Working Group are presented and are subjected to public suggestions and improvements (George & Balan, People’s Participation in Development Planning in Kerala, 2011).

Sectors of Working Group

For maximum participation of all the stakeholders, the respective local bodies ensure communication at all stages from conceptualisation to implementation. Right to Information Act plays a major role in the framework as it facilitates access for public to the processes and documents involved. Kerala Institute of Local Administration (KILA) (George & Balan, People’s Participation in Development Planning in Kerala, 2011) conducts training programmes for members of Ward Sabha/Ward Committee and this capacity building initiative ensures that decision-making process is all-inclusive.

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A Structured Approach to Capacity Building

Evolution of a Strategy

CIDCO is a pioneer in the urban development sector in India and as such, it is constantly evolving in order to be prepared to face the challenges of the modern urban sector. CIDCO recognizes the significance of building its capacity as an urban development agency and it plans to implement interventions that:

  • Develop skills of its existing of employees.
  • Build behavioural and managerial skills in the young officers as the older staff in leadership roles retire.
  • Provide a work culture that retains and nurtures talent and prevent the loss of skilled employees to the private sector.
  • Make continuous learning a part of the work culture.

For these, CIDCO established the NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab, a research and capacity building unit in 2014 through a collaboration with the National Institute of Urban Affairs. Over the last three years, the Smart City Lab has conducted research on smart cities, aided the launch of CIDCO’s Smart City Action Plan and implemented several capacity building interventions for CIDCO. These interventions include a training needs assessment conducted in 2014-2015 and the facilitation of participation in trainings for CIDCO officers.

Recognizing that a lack of clear guidelines and a lengthy approval process for participation in a trainings are a barrier to capacity building, CIDCO adopted a training policy in 2017, with the support of the Smart City Lab. Objectives of this policy are:

  • To improve its organisational capacity through an approach that is structured, responsive, flexible and performance driven.
  • To overcome all institutional barriers to learning, adoption and diffusion of knowledge within the agency through human and technological resources.
  • To increasingly acknowledge that innovation consists of continuous learning and organisational problem solving.
  • To recognize that innovation is key to delivering services in a constantly changing urban landscape in India.
  • To promote the established theory that working relationships across individuals, hierarchies and departments are important for delivering capacity building and innovation.

Subsequently, the Lab developed an online training management system for its implementation. Earlier version of CIDCO@Smart1 has covered both of these in detail. A dedicated training cell at CIDCO maintains the online training management system ‘Ujjwal’. The training policy, Ujjwal and the training cell are the pillars of the comprehensive training programme at CIDCO.

Essentials for Change

The capacity building strategy adopted by CIDCO leverages the various reforms already being implemented at the ULB level across the country under e-Governance, financial management, BSUP, AMRUT and Smart City Mission. As noted in its Smart City Action Plan, CIDCO already is already working to digitise all of its process through solutions such as AutoDCR, COPAS and CFC. Complementing these strategies, CIDCO has adopted a demand driven approach for capacity building that works at two levels, organisational and individual.

Organisational/Institutional

  • Recognition of capacity building as a necessity.
  • Adoption of training policy.
  • Commitment of financial resources.
  • Establishment of training cell within CIDCO.
  • Implementation of an online training management system (Ujjwal).
  • Revision of institutional travel policy.

Pathways to Organisational Learning

Individual

  • Individual skill development for all Class I & II Officers.
  • Hand-holding and constant support for participating officers.
  • Prompt access to information about all potential courses at the click of a button.
  • Constant collection of feedback on the experience of CIDCO officers training through Ujjwal.

This two pronged approach makes the capacity building programme more robust. It enables the Smart City Lab to customise the trainings to suit the needs of CIDCO’s officers and all of its departments. Additionally, support from CIDCO’s leadership and an equal focus on all disciplines within the agency, makes this capacity building effort stand out.

Key Takeaways

NIUA is and continues to be a Knowledge Partner for CIDCO. This is a unique collaboration given the broad mandate of the NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab: provide support to CIDCO’s technical personnel through action research, training, innovation, documentation and capacity building with a particular focus on the development of ‘smart cities’. The Smart City Lab’s work over the last three years has yielded important learnings regarding implementation of capacity building interventions at the local level. These lessons are particularly important as they are based on the work of a hybrid training unit embedded within CIDCO. Based on these lessons, following are the recommendations for the implementation of capacity building at the local level:

  • Adopt a policy or pass a resolution within the agency that defines capacity building objectives and allocates resources for it (human & financial). This is an essential to provide clear guidelines that enable and encourages employees to participate in trainings. The CIDCO’s training policy is available for its Officers to review online through the agency’s intranet and through NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab’s website. Since the adoption of the policy, participation of CIDCO Officers in training programmes over a period of four months has quadrupled. The number increased from 21 to 100 following the implementation of this capacity building programme.
  • Dedicate time to understand processes within the agency is critical. It is the very first step towards the simplification of the training approval process. CIDCO was able to reduce its training participation approval time from about a fortnight to two to three days.
  • Engage with other cities across the world through knowledge exchanges, conferences and workshops. Capacities can be built through exchanges among different local agencies – locally, nationally and internationally. Best case practices demonstrate successful interventions and enable easy adoption.
  • Allow flexibility within the institutional policies to overcome barriers and build a supporting ecosystem. CIDCO revised its travel policy to allow its officers greater options of arranging travel to and from training institutes.

With the policy, the training cell and the online training management system (Ujjwal) in place, the Smart City Lab is now collating data to highlight the impact of CIDCO’s comprehensive approach on its overall capacity. The next step will be to scale up the interventions by building partnerships with premier training institutes who can provide customised trainings to CIDCO Officers.

CIDCO’s commitment to the capacity-building interventions is a direct result of its learning and growth as an organisation. Through the implementation of this comprehensive capacity building programme, CIDCO and the Smart City Lab are on their way to transforming attitudes towards capacity building within the agency and beyond.

 

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Priyank Khare

Priyank Khare is an Urban Planner and Architect by qualification. He did his bachelor’s degree in architecture from Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal and acquired his master’s degree in Urban planning & policy design from Politecnico di Milano, Italy. He has worked with KCity, an urban regeneration firm based in Milano, Italy and prior to that as a Sr. Architect in L&T Constructions. His research interests are about organic planning, complex adaptive systems in neighborhood development and concept of cities as a self-organizing system.

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NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab publishes Volume 3 Issue 3 and 4 of its newsletter

NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab publishes CIDCO@Smart Volume 3 Issues 3 and 4, detailing the team’s activities from July 2017 and December 2017. The newsletter gives an insight into the work done by the Smart City Lab team in the areas of Research, Capacity Building, Innovation and Project support for CIDCO.

This issue covers Financial Independence as the Objective Area and Nature Park and Smart Parking as Projects in Focus from the CIDCO Smart City Action Plan. The Data sheets in this issue include a summary of the Smart City Plans from Guwahati and Ludhiana along with the project summaries for 90 Smart Cities (Light House, Fast Track, Round II and Round III). Knowledge Lab, presents the feedback received for the trainings facilitated through Ujjwal and introduces the new Sharing Module on Ujjwal. Smart City Corner covers Bloom’s Taxonomy –  a tool used for strategizing capacity building, structured capacity building for organisational learning and Smart City Framework for Vienna. The issue also presents a brief summary of a draft alternative TOD policy for Delhi prepared by the Smart City Lab under Initiatives@Smart City Lab. Finally, Participatory Budgeting is discussed under the Inclusive Planning section with examples from Pune and Kerala.

It is available for download here.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy

Benjamin Bloom (1913-1999) led a team of cognitive psychologists at the University of Chicago in the development of a framework to categorize learning objectives. This framework was published in 1956 and is known as Bloom’s Taxonomy. It is a method of organizing learning goals and objectives. Bloom’s Taxonomy provides an excellent structure for planning, designing, assessing and evaluating training and learning effectiveness.

One of the major tasks in the process of designing a course is to define the expected learning outcomes or goals. Bloom’s Taxonomy helps to provide a standard language about learning goals and objectives for this. The model uses three domains to classify learning objectives of a course:

  • Cognitive Domain (Intellectual Capability, i.e. Knowledge, or ‘Think’)
  • Affective Domain (Feelings, Emotions and Behaviour, i.e. Attitude, or ‘Feel’)
  • Psychomotor Domain (Manual and Physical Skills, i.e. Skills, or ‘Do’)

‘At-a-glance’ representation of Bloom’s Taxonomy

Each domain is further broken up into tiers. The three domains have been structured in a hierarchy – first Cognitive, then Affective and finally Psychomotor. Each domain must be mastered before progressing to the next. Cognitive Domain focuses on knowledge, Affective Domain focuses on the attitude of the participants while the Psychomotor Domain covers development of physical and bodily skill. – Affective Domain should arguably cover all levels of each domain, particularly in organisations seeking learning at an institutional level.

The work done by Bloom and his team primarily focused on the Cognitive Domain, breaking it down into six categories or tiers as shown in the image. Each of these six tiers also reflect the degree of difficulty of the participants, starting with Remember and increasing in level all the way up to Create.

Structure of the Cognitive Domain

The learning goals in the design of a course for the participants can be specified using this tool. Most learning interventions tend to focus on Remember, Understand and Apply. Analyse, Evaluate, and Create are more relevant when the learning objective is to ‘break down information into parts the learning is being applied to real life situations. These six categories were initially defined as Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Evaluation and Synthesis.

Bloom’s Taxonomy has two main applications:

  • As discussed earlier, it is directly useful in planning, designing courses and their effectiveness.
  • It can be used as a checklist to ensure achievement of learning goals for participants in a course by testing the validity and coverage of the concepts covered.
  • It is also used to quantify and compare level of assessment.

Bloom’s taxonomy is considered relevant in all types of learning, including workplace learning. The objective of workplace learning is for learners to not only remember and recall facts and procedures but to also be able to apply their learning to authentic workplace situation to improve on the job performance. For CIDCO, bridging the gap between knowledge gained by its Officers and its application in their everyday work is essential for effective learning. As CIDCO Officers continue to participate in trainings through Ujjwal, the Training Cell aims to ensure that they master the principles of the each of cognitive learning category before progressing on to the next. Moving from ‘remember’ to ‘create’, they will eventually, integrate advanced and creative out-of-the-box thinking in their work, with an emphasis on the formulation of new patterns and structures.

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An Alternative TOD Policy

Delhi, as the centre of the National Capital Region (NCR), needs to reaffirm its status as the primate city in the central NCR. In spite of a declining population growth, Delhi has sprawled to an area double its size over the last decade. This is the consequence of an auto-centric bias and a shortage of affordable housing. People are living further away from places of their work and spending more time on their daily commute on road. Delhi’s adoption of TOD as a strategy will help rein in this sprawl and improve the quality of life.

Recognising this, UTTIPEC (DDA) initiated the development of a TOD Policy for Delhi in 2009. In 2012, the first draft of the policy was completed. A revised version of the policy approved by the MoUHA in 2015. The policy was further modified and published for comments in 2016. The notification of the Policy in the Gazette of India in April 2016 showed a dilution of the progressive standards set in the 2012 Draft. It also the showed the difficulty of changing the behaviour of an auto-centric city. This is in spite of the large scale capital investments in public transit made over previous decade. NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab was invited to share comments on Delhi’s TOD Policy earlier in 2017. As an additional exercise, the Lab also prepared a draft alternative TOD Policy for Delhi.

This draft borrows from findings of a study conducted by NIUA on Transit Oriented Development in Indian Smart Cities. It suggests for a focus on the following:

  1. Need for the policy – The policy should present a clear status of Delhi’s infrastructure, making the case for the TOD policy. It should focus on NMT, public transit, housing infrastructure and upcoming transport investments. The policy should focus upon the principles of TOD and using the five constructs outlined in NIUA’s TOD study in 2016-17.
  2. Policy statement – It should highlight the significance of the TOD Policy in managing Delhi’s growth. It should also clearly state the policy’s intention of maximising sustainable mobility and development practices in Delhi.
  3. Existing legal provisions relevant to the policy – The policy must recognise the legal framework already in place that supports implementation of a TOD. It should highlight the provisions within Master Plan for Delhi 2021 and the National Urban Transportation Policy 2014 that enable the implementation of TOD.
  4. Applicability of the policy – The policy should clearly identify the areas within Delhi for its application. It should also enumerate the various public transit stations and nodes in the city that can be developed as a TOD node.
  5. Exclusions to the policy – It should identify the areas within the city where the policy cannot be applied. This should be with respect to the presence of historical structures and other conditions protecting their status.
  6. Guidelines for implementation of the policy – The tools useful in the implementation of a TOD should be discussed within the policy along with the guidance for their use. a. Instruments of a TOD, namely Value Capture Finance, Land Pooling and Joint Ventures. b. TOD Project types based on Influence area development and public transit type c. Differences between a Greenfield and Brownfield development within a TOD.
  7. Key Highlights of DCR – Finally, the policy should present the modifications in DCRs necessary for implementation of TOD. This should cover standards for density, FSI, road design, car parking, land use mix and universal access.

TOD implementation in a city requires adoption of its principles through an incremental approach. Given that this process stretches over years, it requires a clear guiding framework. The policy offers this framework by integrating existing statutory documents and regulations. It attempts to shift the focus from the solutions to the mechanisms of their delivery. By doing so, this alternative draft TOD Policy for Delhi aims to overcome institutional barriers to the success of a TOD. Recommendations of the policy focus on a incremental approach that allows the city to transform neighbourhoods one step at a time with simple interventions. Highlights of the recommendations made in the policy draft are:

  1. Implement TOD around existing public transit stations, using them as nodes.
  2. Prioritize the TOD implementation around multi-modal hubs (metro stations, interchanges, railway stations, bus terminals and airport terminals).
  3. Maximizing access to these transit stations by developing bicycle-pedestrian infrastructure, strengthening existing IPT with the ‘influence area’.
  4. Limit parking within 100 m of these stations.
  5. Ensure convenient transfer between different modes of public transit by implementing seamless integration.
  6. Focus on achieving a high density of jobs and households, with a minimum density of 175 inhabitants per hectare.
  7. In case of the implementing TOD on MRTS (metro), High densities centred at the stations will automatically form a contiguous band of Influence Zone or Corridor since the average distance between the stations is less than a km.
  8. Investments in the improvement of influence area improve value of the neighbouring property. Adopt VCF policy to capture some of this financial increment.
  9. Use mechanisms such as a Business Improvement District (BID) at District Centres in Delhi to finance physical improvements for pedestrian and NMT infrastructure and open space in the influence area.
  10. Use PPP or Joint Development models for financing TOD and engaging with the private stakeholders.
  11. Revise the DCR to enable implementation of all these interventions.
  12. Scale all interventions based on the extent to existing development. The various types of development recommended are as follows: Brownfield – Retrofit; Brownfield – Infill; Brownfield – Redevelopment (New Development); Greenfield (New Development).

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Citizen Engagement Strategy for Smart Cities

According to the Smart City Plan (SCP) of Smart Cities Mission, the process for planning the Smart City commences with the self assessment of the city, preparation of the city profile and thereafter progresses to intense citizen engagement at multiple levels in the city using different means. The SCP says, ‘a sound engagement strategy should involve better communication by government, soliciting feedback for problem identification, co-creating solutions and involving local citizen champions, while ensuring the active participation of various groups of people, such as youth and students associations, welfare associations, tax-payers associations, senior citizens, special interest groups, slum dwellers and others.’

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Prajakta Lavangare

Mrs. Prajakta Lavangare Verma is the Joint Managing Director at City and Industrial Development Corporation, Navi Mumbai. She is an IAS Officer with diverse experience in both rural and urban sectors. She has a strong track record of working in Water Conservation, Education, Sanitation, Women And Child Development, Information and Public Relations and Urban Development. She is seen as a sensitive administrator with a strong understanding of government programmes with active local participation. Prior to joining CIDCO in August 2016, she worked in different positions with the state and central governments, including Joint Commissioner Investigation at the Sales Tax Division for the Government of Maharashtra and Deputy Director General – Legal and Finance, Director General of Shipping, Government of India. She has received multiple awards for her work including the prestigious LC Singhvi Award at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration in 2002.

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