Training Through Ujjwal

As a one-stop shop, Ujjwal allows the CIDCO officers to view, select, apply, and track their participation and progress in various trainings. This process is facilitated by the Ujjwal Training Cell that is located within the planning department at CIDCO Bhavan in Navi Mumbai.

Course: A program offered by an institute that an Officer can apply for through Ujjwal.

Training: Training is the process of selection and participation in a course by an Officer, facilitated by the Training cell through Ujjwal.

Typology: There are three kinds of courses available through Ujjwal:

  • Managerial trainings are related to effective management of projects and people including need for improved knowledge and skills on project management, strategic decision making financial management, crisis management, conflict management, risk assessment, etc.
  • Technical trainings are specific to the functions and needs of the departments of the organization
  • Behavioural trainings are related to improving one’s own productivity and sense of achievement and personal growth through self-improvement courses.

STEP 1: Log-in

Every Class I & Class II Officer is given access to the portal through a link that is shared over an email and a password that is sent in an SMS text.

STEP 2: Visit the Dashboard

Upon logging in, officers can see their personalised Dashboard. It allows them to see their participation eligibility and the completed, ongoing and upcoming trainings.

DASHBOARD

STEP 3: Update and Confirm Details

Officers can review their personal and employee information from the Edit Profile page. They can change their password, verify/select their Reporting Officer, and report an issue if their Reporting Officer is not visible in the provided list.

CHANGE EMAIL ADDRESS

VERIFY/SELECT REPORTING OFFICER

REPORT AN ISSUE IN CASE OF INCORRECT OR MISSING REPORTING OFFICER

UPDATE & CONFIRM DETAILS

STEP 4: Add Trainings

Officers can select three courses that they are interested to participate in using the selection tool in order of their preference – Priority I, II & III. Out of these three, their participation will be confirmed for one, based on their preference and the availability of seats.

SELECT THREE COURSES IN ORDER OF PREFERENCE

To select a course, officers will need to first select a Typology

SELECT A TYPOLOGY

Next, they can choose a course

PICK A COURSE

These courses can also be sorted by month using the Calendar filter

SEARCH WITH THE CALENDAR FILTER

Before moving further, officers should confirm their availability on the dates on which the course is being offered.

VERIFY AVAILABILITY

Officers can also click on the View Course Details button to read more about the course.

CLICK TO VIEW COURSE DETAILS

REVIEW COURSE DETAILS

Once satisfied with the course, officers can click the Select Course button to add the course to their selection.

SELECT THE COURSE

Officers can review their selection once again by clicking on the selection

CLICK THE BUTTON TO REVIEW ONCE AGAIN

If officers wish to change the training, they can click on the Remove button to clear the selection.

CLICK REMOVE TO CLEAR SELECTION

Once three courses of choice have been selected, officers have to click the Freeze button to add their selection as Trainings.

FREEZE TO REGISTER INTEREST

Once the Freeze button is clicked, the courses will be added as Trainings into the system and the Training Coordinator will receive an email update informing them of the selection. After pressing the Freeze button the officers cannot make any changes to their selection.

TRAININGS SELECTED

STEP 5: Check Stages

Once the courses are added as trainings, the Training Coordinator in the Ujjwal Training Cell will review their selection and approve or reject their enrollment based on availability of seats. Officers can track this process through the Check Stages page. If a course is not approved for participation, a rejection notification will be visible. As per CIDCO policy, officers cannot withdraw from participation in a Training once it has been approved.

Following are the stages that will be visible through the Check Stage for each training once it is approved:

  • Approval of participation that confirms enrollment. Officers should immediately reach out to the training coordinator to discuss the next steps.
  • Confirmation of payment once the payment for the course is made to the institute.
  • Completion of participation on the day the training ends.
  • Completion of training upon submission of Feedback Form, Proof of Participation

CHECK STAGES

STEP 6: Feedback Form and Proof of Participation

A training is considered complete only when the Feedback Form and Proof of Participation are submitted through the portal.

SELECT COURSE

COMPLETE & SUBMIT FEEDBACK

UPLOAD PROOF OF PARTICIPATION

Upon completion, officers may apply for another training after a cooling off period of six months. The cost of participation in the trainings along with associated travel and accomodation expenses will be borne by CIDCO (as per CIDCO’s existing policy). Management of any logistics for travel required for participation in these trainings is to be arranged by the participating officers themselves. Ujjwal is a unqiue system implemented by CIDCO for knowledge enhancement of its officers. As a new system, it continues to evolve by learning from the experiences of all its users. Thus, it is essential that suggestions and questions are brought to the notice of the Ujjwal Training Cell. Officers can use the Contact Training Cell page for this, or write to the Training Cell at trainingcidco@niua.org. The Training Cell is located within CIDCO Bhavan on the fourth floor in the Planning Department.

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Smart City Plan: Columbus, Ohio

US DOT’s Smart City Challenge aims to help cities begin to address the challenges the trends identified in the Beyond Traffic report published by the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. Department of Transportation, n.d.). As part of the challenge, 78 medium-sized cities shared their best and most creative ideas for innovatively addressing the challenges they face. USDOT committed $40 million for one city to demonstrate how advanced data and intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies and applications can be used to reduce congestion, keep travellers safe, protect the environment, respond to climate change, connect underserved communities, and support economic vitality (U.S. Department of Transportation, n.d.). In June 2016, Columbus was selected as the winner of the Smart City Challenge. Columbus proposed to reshape its transportation system to become part of a fully integrated city that leverages data and technology with an aim of efficiently moving people and good (U.S. Department of Transportation, n.d.). The 77 cities that did not win the Smart City Challenge benefited from the challenge as well, as the competition gave them an opportunity for creation of detailed applications that spurred additional interest in smart city technology with respect to the challenges the cities are facing (Maddox, 2016)

The Winner – Columbus, Ohio
Ohio’s capital Columbus is the largest city in the state and the 15th largest city in the country with a population of 8,60,090 (US Census, 2016). It is relatively dense for a mid-sized American city. It has a density of about 3800 inhabitants per square mile (around 1500 persons per square km). It serves as a strong regional anchor with 39% of the Metropolitan Area population living in the city. Columbus has grown consistently over time and it continues to become more diverse with growing African-American, Latino and Asian populations. The city has a young working population with a median age of 32 years which is lower than the state (39) and the nation (37) (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017) and has a lower unemployment rate of 3.4% (U.S. Census, 2015). Columbus has a strong and diverse economy, driven by education, healthcare and social assistance services. It is also the fastest growing metro area in the Midwest, the top metro for job growth in the Midwest, and the top metro for wage growth in the U.S. The city recognises these credentials and aims to leverage them to make the City of Columbus- A city of opportunities (Ginther, 2016).

“Columbus won the Smart City Challenge because of Mayor Ginther’s leadership and because the central Ohio community united to develop innovative solutions to address community challenges.” – Sherrod Brown (D-OH)

Skyline of Columbus (Source: https://www.columbus.gov)

Columbus Smart City Vision
With its immense potential and resources, Columbus is striving to become a successful smart city by responding to four primary issues:

  • An aging population;
  • A growing younger population that is moving to the dense urban areas;
  • Mobility challenges in select neighbourhoods; and
  • A growing economy and population with related housing and commercial, passenger and freight, and environmental issues.

Its vision is to become a community that provides beauty, prosperity and health for all of its citizens (Ginther, 2016). It plans to achieve its vision by:

  1. Leveraging a new central connected traffic signal and integrated transportation data system to develop a suite of applications to deliver enhanced human services to residents and visitors.
  2. Integrating electronic appointments and scheduling platform for doctor visits with transit tracking so that rescheduling becomes automated and expecting mothers do not gave to wait weeks to reschedule appointments. These applications include a multi-modal trip planning application, a common payment system for all transportation modes, a smartphone application for assistance to persons with disabilities, and integration of travel options at key locations for visitors.
  3. Establishing a smart corridor connecting underserved neighbourhoods to jobs and services. The smart corridor will enhance Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) service by installing smart traffic signals, smart street lighting, traveller information and payment kiosks, and free public Wi-Fi along the route. Further, six electric, accessible, autonomous vehicles will be deployed to expand the reach of the BRT system to additional retail and employment centres (U.S. Department of Transportation, n.d.).

Smart City plan for Columbus adopts Transit Oriented Development (TOD) as an approach for managing city’s transportation. Mayor Andrew J. Ginther understands the connection between city’s transportation and the livelihood of the people. He believes that “Transportation is not just about roads, transit and ride sharing. It is about how people access opportunity. And how they live”. (Smart Columbus, n.d.) Globally, many cities are appreciating and adopting TOD approach to build more liveable cities. In fact, after focused efforts to dovetail infrastructure and technology through its AMRUT and Smart Cities programs, the Government of India is now turning its attention Transit-Oriented Development  (TOD). It has also recently adopted a national TOD policy that will support the transformation process already underway in most of the Indian cities. This transformation will attract lot of  investments to the respective cities, and vastly increase their ‘liveability’ in a sustainable manner.

Highlights of the proposal
There are four foundational plans, which will allow the city to identify and overcome the challenges for achieving its desired goals (Ginther, 2016).

  1. Connect Columbus: Connect Columbus is the City’s Multimodal Thoroughfare Plan which provides a long-range vision and priority investments for transportation plan in the City. The plan aims designed to improve safety, reduce congestion, assist children, the elderly, and people with ADA needs and promote economic development, fitness and environmental responsibility.
  2. Insight 2050: Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission (MORPC), the metropolitan planning organisation for Columbus, leads Insight 2050. It is a collaborative initiative among public and private partners designed to help Central Ohio proactively plan for growth and development. Insight 2050 provides scenario testing tools and data to help decision makers understand the impact of future land use policies and the transportation investments.
  3. 2016-2040 Metropolitan Transportation Plan: As the region continues to grow and funding availability becomes scarce, the region is prepared with innovative transportation solutions to address grown infrastructure demand. The Metropolitan Transportation Plan is the federally mandated long-range planning document led   by MORPC that brings together local governments from around Central Ohio and other local, state, and federal agencies to identify and coordinate transportation goals, policies, strategies and projects over the next two decades.
  4. NextGen Plan: The NextGen Plan is the Central Ohio Transit Authority’s (COTA) long-range planning effort to identify transit needs and opportunities for 2025, 2040 and 2050. The initiative will recommend system enhancements, including a prioritised list of bus and rail projects along with what technology to employ. COTA will comprehensively realign its network to better fulfil the needs of the growing community.

Columbus has outperformed a number of other deserving cities, which were far more technologically advanced and financially stronger, because:

  1. The proposal provided a path for growth beyond the initial applications through its clearly defined vision and goals (McGregor, 2016).
  2. Its focus on improving the health and lives of the community by reducing poverty and infant mortality with the application of technology (Hawkins, 2016).
  3. The ability of the city to rope in local partners as well as prominent tech-based companies to help in achieving the goals set for smarter Columbus (Chieppo, 2016).

Key points of comparison with Indian Smart Cities
The greatest difference between cities participating in the Smart City Challenge in the United States and those participating in the Indian Smart Cities Mission is the level of existing infrastructure. Columbus additionally illustrates a strong commitment to the sharing economy and has a foundation for providing open, accessible data that enables other stakeholders to develop solutions for the greater good. This is also evident from the city’s investment in policy and regulatory changes that encourage bike sharing (CoGo) and car sharing (Car2Go, Uber) services. The city also has a working MyColumbus app that enables citizens to access (Ginther, 2016):

  • City services
  • Publicly accessible transit routes, schedules, and stop data
  • MORPC Regional Data Lab portal that provides access to transportation, housing, and other public information available around the region
  • State-wide accessible travel-time data Indian cities, on the other hand, have taken up a bigger challenge of leap-frogging development. As seen through the new urban agenda and its initiatives, Indian Smart Cities are bridging the existing service delivery gaps while embedding “smartness” into the system in the process.

Columbus’ Smart City Plan also successfully leverages about 10 times the initial government grant by building partnership with the private sector. A review of the finances from the first 33 cities shows an average funding leverage of 1.18, with a maximum of 5.29 in case of Indore and a value less than 1 for more than half the cities. However, with the growing focus on engaging with private partners (as seen under the smart cities mission) and the adoption of the country’s first value capture finance policy framework in February 2017, Indian cities are now set to find more opportunities for leveraging finances from alternative sources.

Some of the Indian cities are already demonstrating steps in this direction through the implementation of global best practices. An example of this is the city of Pune. Under the Smart Cities Mission, it is collaborating with Google, L&T and other technology firms to provide Wi-Fi connectivity at around 200 strategic locations in the city (Press Trust of India, 2017). Under the contract, Google will help monetise the city Wi-Fi network, and will deploy Google Station platform, which has Wi-Fi network management capability, and focuses on monetisation to make Wi-Fi self-sustainable. RailTel, on the other hand, will provide lat-mile fibre connectivity on need basis to enable Wi-Fi hotspots at around 200 strategic locations across the city (Khan, 2017).

With the support of national level initiatives such as the Smart City Mission, AMRUT among others, cities are working towards efficient and fast project through a collaboration of urban local bodies, state agencies, and local partners including NGOs, educational institutions and community. As Ohio implements its Smart City Plan, there is an opportunity to observe and benefit from the challenges they face and to aid leap-frogging the development in Indian cities.

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The Art of Learning Design

‘Employees are key players contributing to the core competencies of the organisation’ –
Hamel and Prahald, 1994

For the management of any organisation, the objective of providing training to its employees is to bring about a change and development that makes them more efficient at their job. Elaborate planning and arrangement of instruction is important for ensuring quality in this education. Instructional design leads the way in accomplishing this goal through better, more effective teaching (Göksu, Özcan, Çakir, & Göktas, 2017).

Instructional design can be defined as a systematic method that (a) covers such stages of the teaching process as analysis, design, development, evaluation, and management; (b) is based on instructional and learning theories; and (c) enhances the quality of teaching (Göksu, Özcan, Çakir, & Göktas, 2017; Dick,Carey, & Carey, 2001; Dooley, 2005). It aims for a learner centered approach rather than the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction for effective learning. This means that every component of the instruction is governed by the learning outcomes, which have been determined after a thorough analysis of the audience/learners’ needs (McGriff, 2000).

Most instructional design models are built upon the ADDIE model created by the Center for Educational Technology at Florida State University for the U.S. Army (Göksu, Özcan, Çakir, & Göktas, 2017; Branson, et al., 1975; Dooley, 2005; Hoogveld, Paas, Jochems, & Merriënboer, 2002; Zheng & Smaldino, 2003). ADDIE stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. It is a cyclical model used in design and delivery of trainings/learning modules.

ADDIE is linear in nature and as a result its implementation can become comparatively lengthy and costly, however, its dynamic and flexible nature makes it a popular approach for development of instructional material (Welty, 2007). It is often employed for compliance training and other learning events that are not time sensitive. However, there are modified versions of ADDIE that are more dynamic and interactive. Rapid prototyping (continual feedback) has sometimes been cited as a way to improve the generic ADDIE model

The ADDIE Model
The different phases of the ADDIE process—Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation—provide a roadmap for the entire instructional design process.

Analysis: This stage includes identification of the learning problems, goals, objectives, participant’s needs and their
existing knowledge and skills. It is done taking into account the learning environment, delivery options, project timeline and any other relevant constraints. The output of Analysis phase is the input for the Design phase.

Design: The primary goal of this stage is to translate the goals of the course defined in the Analysis phase into performance outcomes and course objectives. This includes specification of learning objectives, development of detailed storyboards, prototypes, content and presentation methods.

Development: The purpose of this phase is to generate lesson plans and lesson materials. This includes the actual creation (production) of the content and based on the output of the Design phase (McGriff, 2000). It involves preparation of draft material and activities, their testing and revision and preparation of training material as per requirement.

Implementation: This is the phase where the actual delivery of the training takes place through a given medium. Purpose of this phase is the effective and efficient delivery of instruction. This phase must promote the audiences’ understanding of material, support their mastery of objectives, ensuring transfer of knowledge from the instructional setting to the job (McGriff, 2000).

Evaluation: This is the phase where the effectiveness and efficiency of the instruction is measured. Evaluation can be of two types: Formative and Summative. Formative Evaluation is conducted during and in between the different phases of the ADDIE model. Its purpose is to improve the learning/training module before the final version is delivered. Summative Evaluation occurs after the final version of learning/training module is delivered. It assesses the overall effectiveness of the module. Data from this phase is used to make decision about the module (McGriff, 2000).

Over years, practitioners have developed customised versions to suit the specific trainings/learning needs. This includes  PADDIE + M, where the P stands for planning and M stands for Maintenance, and ADDIE+M, where Μ stands for Maintenance of the Learning Community Network after the end of a course.

Today, the influence of the ADDIE can be seen on most Instructional Design models being used. ADDIE’s success is a result of its flexibility, simplicity and efficiency. Its iterative nature allows consistency within the model and opportunity for improvement until the learning needs are met, ensuring a robust training/learning module.

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Kochi Metro – Kudumbasree, Partners for Inclusive Planning

Kochi Metro is the newest implemented mass rapid transit system in the country. Its construction began in June 2013 and a 13.4 km long section on the line between Aluva and Palarivattom was inaugurated on 17th June 2017. A second 5 km stretch between Palarivattom and Maharaja’s College is slated to open in August 2017. Kochi Metro is also working to make the system socially inclusive by working with Kudumbasree. Together, they are working to hire women and transgender individuals in the operational management of the metro system.

Kudumbasree Logo (Source: http://www.kudumbashree.org/)

Kudumbasree is a community organisation of Neighbourhood Groups (NHGs) of women in Kerala. It has been recognised as an effective strategy for the empowerment of women in rural as well as urban areas (Krishnakumar, 2015). The mission of Kudumbasree is “to eradicate absolute poverty in ten years through concerted community action under the leadership of local governments, by facilitating organisation of the poor for combining self-help with demand-led convergence of available services and resources to tackle the multiple dimensions and manifestations of poverty, holistically”. There are several strategies undertaken by the organisation to achieve its mission, which include formation of women collectives, skill upgrade training, provision of better living conditions -infrastructural facilities, micro-enterprises for sustainable economic development, etc.

Last year, KMRL signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Kudumbasree for the management of its station premises including ticketing, customer relations, housekeeping, parking management and running the canteens of KMRL. The MoU was signed in the presence of Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan and minister for Local Self Government K T Jaleel during the Chief Minister’s visit to KMRL office for reviewing the project (PTI, 2016).

Elias George, Managing Director of Kochi Metro Rail Limited (Source: http://fiftyshadesofgay.co.in/kerala-kochi-metro-to-offer-jobs-to-transgenders/)

Two major initiatives taken by the Kochi Metro, which makes it unique are:

  • This is the first time a government owned organization in the country has formally appointed twenty three transgender persons (John & Das, 2017),
  • Kochi metro will have more women employees; it will be a women run metro.

People will be hired on an experimental basis after a security screening by police and the women employees appointed will be give

n special training by the police. On the decision of including transgender, Elias George, KMRL Managing Director said, “Transgenders face lot of difficulties. They are forced into undesirable occupations. So as an experiment, we have developed an idea to rehabilitate them. Under Kudumbasree itself, we have planned to employ transgender in Kochi metro. We know that our experiment will be a success,” Mr. George reaffirmed that if this experiment turns out to be a success, they would incorporate the same for the water metro project (Ashtputre, 2016).

Kerala government has previously worked on social inclusion of transgender community. Last year, Kerala unveiled a Transgender Policy, with the view towards protecting the rights of transgender and ending the stigma towards the community. The idea behind the policy is to ensure that transgender have equal access to social and economic opportunities, resources and services, and right to live life without violence (Singh, 2016).

Kochi Metro (Source: http://fiftyshadesofgay.co.in/kerala-kochi-metro-to-offer-jobs-to-transgenders/)

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CIDCO Training Portal: Ujjwal

NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab was established in July 2014 at the National Institute of Urban Affairs as the research and capacity building unit, providing support to CIDCO’s technical personnel through action research, documentation and capacity building. Since its formation, the lab has supported CIDCO in a variety of activities, including the launch of CIDCO Smart City (South) in 2015. Entering its 4th year, NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab is now aiding the implementation of CIDCO’s new Training Policy through Ujjwal, CIDCO’s first online Training Portal. The Training Policy was approved by the CIDCO Board as a step towards achieving the objectives set under the ‘Smart Organisation’ vertical of CIDCO’s Smart City Vision. Its key objective is to overcome barriers to training and knowledge enhancement for all Class I & Class II CIDCO officers.

Ujjwal is an integrated platform that provides access to a wide choice of managerial, technical and behavioural courses from world-class institutes, through a user-friendly interface. It was custom made for CIDCO by NIUA’s web development unit and launched on 5th July 2017. It can be accessed at https://cidcosmartcity.niua.org/ujjwal. The portal is built upon three primary datasets:

  • Existing Employee as per SAP: This data includes phone number, email address, age, experience, designation, cadre and reporting officer.
  • Institutes: A list of partner institutes who offer relevant trainings. This includes location of the institute and details for the contact person.
  • Courses: A list of courses offered by partner institutes and organisations that CIDCO officers can apply to participate in. This includes details about the course such as course description, intended audience, start and end date, registration deadline and fees.

NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab is currently working to integrate Ujjwal with CIDCO’s SAP system in order to allow real-time updates to the employee database, accounting for all new hires, promotions, retirements, etc. Since its launch, the portal has already registered 137 visitors within the first three weeks of its launch. At the time of publication of this Newsletter, participation of 77 officers have registered their interest in training through the portal, out of which, 37 trainings have been already approved for 56 CIDCO officers. As of 31 July, 2017, 13 CIDCO officers would have completed participation in 9 trainings.

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NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab -‘CIDCO@Smart’ Volume 3 Issue 2

This issue showcases CIDCO’s work on the objectives set under the Swachh Bharat Mission, led by the implementation of new technologies for waste management practices and the proposed Development of Terminus Station at Panvel. The newsletter shares highlights from Davanagere’s Smart City Plan and features an update on Round III of the National Smart Cities Mission. The section Knowledge Lab focuses on the establishment of NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab Training Cell and the launch of CIDCO’s first training portal Ujjwal. It includes a detailed walk-through for the portal, along with a brief discussion on its role in implementation of CIDCO’s Training Policy. Smart City Corner presents the key highlights of the Smart City Plan from Colmbus, Ohio. It is a follow up on a previous article from CIDCO@Smart Volume 2, Issue 1, which offered a comparative analysis of the Indian National Smart Cities Mission and the American Smart Cities Challenge. The section on Inclusive Planning covers Kudumbasree’s work for inclusion of women and transgender individuals in the the development and operation of Kochi Metro. This issue also features its first article on HR Management in the Newsletter, discussing an instructional design model called ADDIE.

The issue is available for download here

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CIDCO Smart City Lab @ International Workshop for Development of TOD Projects in Indian Smart Cities

CIDCO Smart City Lab participated in a two day International Workshop on the Development of TOD Projects in Indian Smart Cities on 12th and 13th January, 2017 at India Habitat Center, New Delhi.

First day of the workshop involved an interactive session with real estate sector representatives on the topic of public-private partnerships for driving Transit Oriented Development in Indian Cities.

The second day included three panel discussions with national and international experts on TOD with a focus of operationalising TOD projects within the framework of the Indian Smart Cities Mission.

City representatives and PMCs from 13 cities took part in the event along with advocacy groups, private sector and multi lateral agencies.

This workshop if part of an ongoing research on Transit Oriented Development conducted by NIUA. The CIDCO Smart City Lab team is a part of the research group.

 

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Designing for Bicycle based Mobility

1Bicycle users in cities of India generally constitute a relatively high modal share of intra-city trips. However, there has been a consistent lack of prioritisation in terms of policy incentives and investment in bicycle infrastructure over the last few decades. This coupled with the growing length of commutes and aspirations of upward mobility in terms of owning a motorised vehicle has halved the modal share in moderate and large Indian cities to only about 13 to 21 percent today (Tiwari & Jain, IUTJ, December 2008).
2In the last 10 years, there has been a marked rise in investments within the realm of urban transport in India. After development of significant automobile infrastructure has not had the desired effect, there have been calls for a renewed focus on sustainable modes such as mass public transit, bicycles and pedestrian prioritisation. With the development of Smart Cities in India, bicycle based planning can feature as an important part in developing and promoting cities with core infrastructure, a decent quality of life for its citizens and a clean and sustainable environment. It would truly follow the recommendations of the National Urban Transport Policy by moving people and not vehicles.
Successful bicycle based planning is focused on elements of planning, legislation, infrastructure and advocacy. However, from a design perspective one needs to understand the various considerations that would need to be included to create a safe and user-friendly system. Bicycles can be used for three different types of usage that would require different design considerations

1. Transit mode

2. Local neighbourhood commutes and last mile transit connector

3. Leisure and exercise

System Planning

3The fundamental difference in planning for each of the types listed above is the style of system that would be needed which are dependent on the network type. In all three, the specifications for the surface would need to be such that it is even and continuous with no level changes without a ramp of minimum gradient 1:12. If combined with the sidewalk, they should be of a texture of a sufficient coefficient of roughness to be anti-skid and of a colour to visually distinguish it from the space reserved for pedestrians. The potential system designs for the bicycle network as detailed below are based on the degree of separation from other modes that depend on the design speed of the road or street.

Segregated Lanes

To serve as a city level transit mode, bicyclists would need to use arterial roads for some parts of their commute. Given the higher speed of vehicular traffic on these roads, it is desirable to have physically segregated lanes for bicycles to ensure user safety. These could be designed as a part of the carriageway or the sidewalk depending on the volume of bicyclists. Based on the design speed of the road, segregation could be designed as road markings/striping, raised strips, planting or bollards or combinations of the same with the former being for slower design speeds and the latter for faster.
The segregated lanes may be designed as single direction or bi-directional, including a contra-flow lane. A two-way lane is preferred especially where the road width is such that crossing is difficult and requires significant wait at a signalised intersection. Two-way lanes reduce the length needed to be travelled by a cyclist, but requires an increase in the minimum width provision for the lane from 2.1 metres to 2.5 metres. If there are relatively lower volumes of cyclists, it may also be possible to have two-way lanes only on one side of the road.

Shared Streets

6Short distance commutes that take place within neighbourhoods characterised by streets of narrow width and slower traffic may have bicycle users use the same street network as a shared street with mixed traffic. These could generally cater to neighbourhood level commutes for daily needs and local destinations. Also, the influence zone of a mass rapid transit system can increase to around three times in area (from a radius of 500 metres by walk to one of 1500 metres by bicycle) if bicycles can be used a feeder instead of solely walks. Bicycles as a feeder system would need to be supported with ancillary infrastructure that would be covered subsequently.

Alternate Routes

Cyclists of leisure and exercise generally use a system at off peak hours when other traffic is scarce. As there is no particular destination or route involved, it is difficult to plan for these users as part of the street network. However, a system that includes alternate routes for bicycles that run in tandem with the regular motorised routes are preferred by these users as they have a lower possibility of interruptions of vehicular traffic. These could be greenways through large city level green open spaces or could also be streets that are closed off to vehicular traffic. While alternate routes definitely serve leisure activities, if planned with the rest of the city, they can also work for the other use requirements by allowing these users to cut across portions of the city unhindered by vehicles. Sharing of such a network would require larger widths of bicycle tracks to allow commuters to bypass sociable riders who may bicycle parallel to each other and at a slower pace.

Ancillary Infrastructure

4Additional infrastructure outside that of the physical one needed for bicycling is required to create feasible environments for the comfortable usage of a bicycle. Without these, significant portions of potential cyclists are left out due to concern for equipment safety and/or capital investment.

Parking

An extremely important part of planning for bicycle mobility (which is routinely ignored) is the provision of safe and secure parking for the 7bicycles. This becomes a major deterrent in choosing the bicycle as a mode choice. Even where bicycle parking is provided, it is often in the most inaccessible part of the building, even though it needs very little space as compared to larger vehicles. Parking systems need to have the option of both short-term and long-term provisions – the latter required especially for the bicycle to act as a feeder system. Without long-term bicycle parking, the only other way bicycles can act as a feeder is if the bicycle can be carried onto the mass transit network. While provision of parking may not always be possible in the public domain, it must be mandated as a part of the parking requirements with preferably more accessible locations allocated to bicycles.

Bike-share

8In addition to provision of the physical infrastructure, occasional users and users unwilling to invest in a personal bicycle can be incentivised to use a bicycle if provided as a rental. However, instead of relying on a rental system, where loan and return is usually at the same location, a share system is preferred, as it could be picked up and dropped off at various locations along the system. This would incentivise potential last mile users and commuters to also use the system rather than only neighbourhood users who would be using the bicycle only within the range of a rental location. Costs of the system – both in terms of capital investment and maintenance – could be cross-subsidised by leveraging advertising revenue on the bicycles and also on the rental locations.

Safety

Ensuring safety and security of the users of a bicycle system is critical. The issue must be addressed across the system at every stage, particularly at conflict points with other modes of transportation.

Street Lighting

9Provision of street lighting for bicycles is needed for multiple reasons – increased visibility of bicyclists, who usually tend to be less visible than other vehicles – due to their negligible surface area, thereby reducing potential night-time accidents and personal injuries; reducing the bicyclists being blinded by the headlights of oncoming vehicles due to an otherwise stark difference in brightness of the two environments; social inclusion by enabling the use of amenities without fear (due to increased visibility); and promoting personal fitness by encouraging bicycling outside daylight hours.
It is generally found suitable to combine street lighting for bicycles with that of pedestrians such that they are low mast (3-4 metres height) with full cut-off fixtures and so that their spread overlaps and there are no dark spots that would tend to become problem areas. A luminaire of around 20-25 lux is recommended.

Street Markings

10Other than demarcation of bicycle lanes in visually segregated systems, street markings are required to encourage adherence to bicycle priority zones – both lanes and crossings. It is important that these markings are easily visible during the day and night so their colour and material should be chosen such that they contrast with the road surface and also reflect some amount of light ensuring their visibility at night. A common material used in India is thermoplastic paint which is also used for centreline and lane markings on vehicular roads.

11The markings should not only demarcate the extents of the bicycle lane but also indicate in words and symbols that the zone is reserved or prioritised for bicycles. At times, the entire stretch or repeated sections of the lane are marked in solid fill. If done as repeated sections, they should be in patches of at least 5 metres and not be more than 25 metres apart from each other. Colours that are used generally are green, blue or at times red. Alternately, glass beads may to added to the road mix to allow continuous low intensity reflectivity.

Signage

12Alongside markings, it is important to reinforce regulations and information with the use of signage. Like regular traffic signage, these would include mandatory signs that indicate what users should do rather than what not to; regulatory signs like no parking, no entry etc.; priority signs like stop and give way; information signs of lanes and crossings, whether one-way or two-way, shared or dedicated; caution and warning signage; and direction and service signage. The style in terms of colour, font and size may vary as per City and State regulations. However, if specifications are missing in terms of signage, specifically for bicycles, it should be ensured that these are at a height and in a size visible to users on a bicycle.

Intersection design

14Bicycle accidents are most common at conflict points with other vehicles. In segregated systems, this tends to be generally at intersections where bicyclists and motorised vehicles cross streets and traffic. It is imperative that intersection design is done carefully to reduce the occurrence of incidents and injuries.
There are generally three ways to physically deal with intersections depending on the intensity and speed of vehicular traffic though these must be supplemented with markings and signage as discussed earlier. First, signalised intersections with either separate signal phases for bicycles, which may be combined with the pedestrian phase or alternatively bicycle phases combined with the phase for vehicles. The latter however, can only work if supplemented with ‘no free left’ turns. If provided in areas with a low volume of bicyclists, pelican signals that allow green bicycle phases only on demand are preferred.

15When bicycle movement is combined with vehicles, bicycles requiring to turn right would require the second model of intersection design which are bike boxes that allow bicycles with a safe and visible way to get ahead of queuing traffic during a red signal phase. Third are protected intersections, which can be used in lower traffic intensity zones, which slows down the traffic at intersection, allowing safe passage. This works by creating a corner refuge island that allows increased reaction time and visibility.

Traffic Calming

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To ensure safety of users, traffic calming is necessary on shared streets and at intersections. It reduces the speed of vehicular traffic and gives priority to bicyclists. Traffic calming may be of four types –

1. Narrowing: curb extensions, road diets, pedestrian refuges etc.

2. Vertical deflection: speed humps, rumble strips, speed tables, changed material etc.

3. Horizontal deflection: chicanes, chokers etc.

4. Restricted access: medians, barriers, bollards etc. for reduced vehicular access

Amenities

Bicyclists as well as other commuters require supporting amenities which increase levels of comfort (these are not mandatory for any system). These amenities include drinking water, public toilets, seating/pause spaces, hawker and vending zones and shaded areas. These are of use not only for bicyclists but also pedestrians and other short-term street users.

Case Study:

Bike-share system at India Habitat Centre

India Habitat Centre (IHC) is a multipurpose complex in central Delhi with work, commercial and social spaces. Located at a distance of around 2 kilometres from the nearest metro stations, employees and visitors to India Habitat Centre face the typical ‘last mile connectivity’ issues. As a solution, IHC is creating a bike-share system and connecting it to Jor Bagh Metro Station. The NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab at the National Institute of Urban Affairs supported the endeavour and provided necessary planning and technical expertise that would be required for developing the system.
There were two options for the route – via 4th Avenue and Jor Bagh Road or via Lodhi Road and Aurobindo Marg. The latter was choses as almost half of Lodhi Road already has a dedicated bicycle track, while the rest has a service road generally used only for parking. The generous sidewalk on Aurobindo Marg, which has little to no users, was optimal for inclusion in the shared bicycle system. To make the bike share system safe and comfortable, the Smart City Lab has proposed interventions along the proposed route addressing design of the lane, design of the intersection, traffic calming, traffic safety and the existing parking policy. The necessary permissions and coordination for execution of the proposal is being managed by India Habitat Centre and includes purchase
of equipment and engaging an operator for the day to day management.
In order to make room for the users of the bike-share system in the form of a bike lane, the NIUA-CIDCO Smart City Lab has proposed the following interventions to the existing right-of-way.

Lane design

22As per the guidelines proposed by the Unified Traffic and Transportation Infrastructure (Planning and Engineering) Centre (UTTIPEC) of the Delhi Development Authority, a lane width of 2.5 metres has been specified for the track to allow contra-flow movement along the route. The surface has been mandated to be made even and continuous with no level changes without a ramp of gradient 1:12. While it would have been preferrable to continue the demarcated and physically separated bicycle track that exists on half the length along Lodhi Road, it is not possible at present as the service road measures only only 7 to 7.5 metres in width and since parking could not be removed completely due to the existence of the Lodhi Road Post Office and Mausam Bhavan along the stretch. It is not possible to have provision of both, on-street parking and a dedicated track with free movement of vehicles in the centre.
Future developments in the system could either remove parking along the stretch or trim the side-walk from the existing 3.5 metres to 2.5 metres and use the space as discussed above. However, in the mean time a visual segregation has been proposed that delineates the lane with reflective thermoplastic paint. To avoid high expenditure, a minimum 5 metre delineation at a distance of every 25 metres has been proposed. As reiterated by the personnel of the Delhi Police, who man the stretch, the delineation would help territorialise the space for bicyclists and consequently have an effect on the speed and where the vehicles that use the service lane park.
In addition, indicators designed both as markings along the lane surface signify the priority for bicyclists by use of a bicycle symbol and also indicative sign posts that would show it is a reserved track.

Intersection design

23Since the major intersection between Max Mueller Marg and Lodhi Road already has a bicycle track along both the arms of Lodhi Road, no major structural changes are proposed here. However, it is suggested that visual indication of the bicycle crossing would be beneficial as it would ensure increased visibility although not necessary since it in any case is ahead of the pedestrian crossing demarcated by a zebra crossing.
Instead, it requested that the signalling department of Delhi Police include a bicycle signal that would be green when Lodhi Road moving east is green ie. approximately 45 seconds and an additional pedestrian and bicycle green (two phases later) during an all vehicular red that would be for 15 seconds with an additional 5 seconds of blinking.
Where the bicycle lane merges into the service lane halfway down Lodhi Road, the lane requires to ramp down at a gradient of 1:12 with placement of a bollard in the centre to block the illegal access of the bicycle lane by two wheeler motorised vehicles.
24The other minor intersections that crossed the entrance gates to Jor Bagh Colony are designed as a continuation of the visually segregated bicycle track with thermoplastic paint as specified above. This to ensure that the vehicles entering or exiting Jor Bagh Colony onto Lodhi Road, give priority to bicycles already crossing the intersection.

25On the Aurobindo Marg stretch however, the Safdarjung Fire Station has an exit for Fire Tenders who would need to exit in a hurry in case of a emergencies. Here, the lane design has a ‘give priority’ sign for the bicycles to ensure that the Fire Tenders have priority access. In addition, the portion in front of the access gate delineated with a diamond checkerboard pattern to indicate caution.
Lastly, the intersection between Aurobindo Marg and Jor Bagh Road needed to be crossed to access the bicycle parking that placed behind the vomitory of the station. A kerb cut has been proposed in the median to enable the bicycles to cross with ease.

Traffic Calming

26An important part of bicycle based planning is design of traffic calming especially at conflict points such that it reduces the speed of crossing vehicles so that even in case of an accident, injury would be reduced to a minimum. The bicycle track on the service lane of Lodhi Road has numerous conflict points where there are punctures between the main carriageway and the service road. These conflict points could have been avoided by placing the lane on the left of the service road, however this was decided not to be done as the consequent conflict points with the entry roads to Jor Bagh Colony, albeit fewer would be on blind corners, thus increasing the tendency of an accident. Further, by keeping it on the right side of the service lane, the pedestrian crossing points between the on street parking and the built edge are eliminated.
30To address these conflict points between the service lane and the punctures from Lodhi Road, it proposed to reduce the turning radius to a minimum of 4.5 metres from the existing 6 metres and adding a zone of cobble stones with a double speed hump running longitudinally along the middle. This would ensure that the vehicle entering or exiting the service lane reduces its speed to avoid a sharp jolt within the vehicle and ensuring safe passage of crossing bicyclists.
At the intersections, where exits from Jor Bagh Colony join Lodhi Road, a table top crossing has been proposed so that not only similar traffic calming is achieved, but side-walk continues, allowing pedestrians to cross without climbing up or down, thereby ensuring universal access.

Parking

28As discussed earlier, the service lane is currently primarily used for parking, which would need to continue in the current state of affairs. However, the Delhi Police has been requested to keep the parking only to the left of the service lane, so that the bicycle track may continue unhindered on the right.
To ensure this, other than visual delineation as discussed earlier, regulatory signage indicating ‘No Parking’ is proposed to be installed on the right hand side of the track. Initially, this has been done with temporary signage by the Delhi Police. But the NDMC proposes to install permanent signs along with the above interventions when the surface of the service lane is being relaid in February 2016.
31In the meantime, to make most use of the winter when bicycling in Delhi is more feasible, the system has begun a trial run from December 16th, 2015 with implementation of the minimum interventions required such as the traffic signal phasing, repair of some broken patches of the side-walk on Aurobindo Marg and delineation of the track with a single line along the service lane of Lodhi Road.
Just before the opening, applications for use of the bicycles were invited from the employees of the institutions at India Habitat Centre. Almost 150 applications were received and passes for free use of the system were issued to 50 applicants on a first come first served basis. Within a month, the number of applications have risen to 280, out of which 200 passes have been issued. The system includes 25 bicycles with stands at Jor Bagh Metro station and Gate 1A of India Habitat Centre and a battery powered vehicle to ferry the bicycles as per demand that currently numbers above 65 trips per day.
29Special mention must be given to the Chairman of NDMC for supporting the initiative, Delhi Metro for providing land for the bicycle stand at Jor Bagh, the DCP (Traffic) and ACP (Traffic) of the South Zone of Delhi Police for assisting with the regulation and enforcement of the ‘No Parking’ zone, M/s Delhi Cycles Pvt. Ltd. who are operating the system and Hero Cycles for providing the cycles. Also, a definite citation to the management of India Habitat Centre for leading by example and continuing their care for the habitat and conceptualising, initiating and funding the scheme. It is hoped that the success of this endeavour would allow expansion to the other nearby nodes first and then to remaining magnet points and transit nodes in the city.

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Privately Owned Public Spaces

pops1‘Privately Owned Public Space’ or ‘POPS’ is a term coined by Jerold S. Kayden of Harvard University. It refers to a public space which is owned by a private entity yet is usable by the public. It is the result of a trade between a local government and the property owners which involves zoning incentives in exchange of a publicly usable and accessible space or utilities. It is an incentive based policy tool that stimulates social responsibility and creates better cooperation between public and private (LUK, 2009).

pops2Public space is a place where all the public is allowed to have the rights of access and use, but not necessarily related to its ownership. The policy of “privately owned public space” allows the contribution from the private sectors and beneficial to the private urban development. The policy is a strong shaping force on the city and can transform commercial districts into enjoyable places (LUK, 2009) Cities across the world, including New York (where the concept originated in the 60s), Seattle, Tokyo, Bangkok, Hong Kong, have successfully demonstrated this. While the systems in these cities differ from each other, the principal of trading tax/zoning incentive remains constant. POPS across each these cities are identified with standardised signage that informs the public to their presence.

PRIVATELY OWNED PUBLIC SPACE
[noun phrase] [slang POPS]

  • 1. a plaza, arcade, or other outdoor or indoor space provided for public use by a private office or residential building owner in return for a zoning concession.
  • 2. a type of public space characterised by the combination of private ownership and zoning-specified public use.
  • 3. one of 525 or so plazas, urban plazas, residential plazas, public plazas, elevated plazas, arcades, through block arcades, through block gallerias, through block connections, covered pedestrian spaces, sidewalk widenings, open air concourses, or other privately owned public spaces specifically defined by New York City’s Zoning Resolution and accompanying legal instruments.
  • 4. Law’s oxymoronic invention.
  • – apops.mas.org

pops3

pops4

It is important to note that while involvement of private sector can cut the cost of urban development, privatisation of the public spaces may easily occur without careful guidelines and regulations. Loopholes in the policy can easily cause mis-uses of the policy for owner’s benefits and neglect of the social welfare. Monitoring these spaces is essential to maintain their quality. Accessibility, visibility and usability are important to ensure the protection of the public realm. (LUK, 2009)

Public spaces are places of social interaction. All over the world, people use it for eating and drinking, business meetings, phone calls, resting, reading, listening to music, working, etc. Irrespective of the size of the city or town or village, they remain one of the most important elements of the built environment. With the cooperation between public and private sector, cities can generate privately owned public spaces that make the communities vibrant and attractive.

References

American Planning Association. (n.d.). Great Places in America – Characteristics and Guidelines of Great Public Spaces. Retrieved January 14, 2016, from https://www.planning.org/greatplaces/spaces/characteristics.htm

Dimmer, C. (2013). Changing Understanding of New York City’s Privately Owned Public Spaces. Sustainable Urban Regeneration, Vol. 25_2013_01, 10.

Fisler, S. (n.d.). SEATTLE’S PRIVATELY OWNED PUBLIC SPACES. Retrieved from The Urbanist: https://www.theurbanist.org/2014/05/09/seattles-privately-owned-public-spaces/

LUK, W. (2009). PRIVATELY OWNED PUBLIC SPACE IN HONG KONG AND NEW YORK: THE URBAN AND SPATIAL INFLUENCE OF THE POLICY. The 4th International Conference of the International Forum on Urbanism (IFoU), 697 – 706.

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